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Sexology. “So what is it that you actually do?”
BS Laura Anne Milosavljevic
January-June 2015, 2(1):174-176
This article details the principles and practices of the scientific discipline Sexology. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with an in-depth understanding of Sexology as an academia as well as its professional applications. Sexology is defined as the multidisciplinary scientific study of human sexuality, but few individuals know exactly what a Sexologist does. Often the assumption is solely sex therapy as treatment for sexual dysfunctions, however, the field of Sexology is far more expansive with multitudinous diverse specializations. Sexology covers a broad spectrum of theory and practice and Sexologists integrate many methods, concepts and interventions into their work. Through education, research and therapy, human sexual difficulties maybe successfully resolved through the commitment and dedication of Sexologists.
  40,997 378 -
Bedroom design orientation and sleep electroencephalography signals
Amin Hekmatmanesh, Maryam Banaei, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Arezu Najafi
January-June 2019, 6(1):33-37
Background: Orientation is a significant factor in architectural design that may affect well-being. Body direction does not change during sleeping, and sleeping is sensitive and affected by environmental factors. Aims: This neuroarchitecture study aimed to assess the effects of bed orientation on sleep quality to enhance bedroom design. Materials and Methods: To do so, the effects of earth's electromagnetic field (EMF) on sleep electroencephalography (EEG) signals were evaluated using signal processing techniques. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 21 healthy volunteer participants slept for two consecutive naps, at two rooms with identical interior design and different bed orientations, toward and against earth's EMF in a sleep clinic. Statistical Analysis: In this experiment, discrete wavelet transform extracted five subfrequencies of EEG data as delta, theta, alpha, beta1, and beta2. In addition, the energy signals were computed by measurement of wave frequencies. The mean total sleep time was 1.63 h in North–South (N-S) earth's EMF orientation and 1.38 h in the other direction. Results: t-test results showed significant changes in delta, theta, and alpha frequencies in terms of bed orientation. There was a significant result in the alpha energy ratio over the whole signal energy. Furthermore, there were increases in the average energy of delta, theta, and alpha bands in N-S versus East–West (E-W) bed directions. Conclusions: This study indicated that sleep in N-S direction could be more beneficial than E-W and the sleep EEG signals can be sensitive to earth's EMF. The results show the importance of considering orientation in bedroom design and its benefits on inhabitants' well-being.
  23,616 667 6
Treatment-emergent dhat syndrome in a young male with Obsessive–Compulsive disorder: An alarm for medication nonadherence
Sujita Kumar Kar
January-June 2019, 6(1):44-45
Dhat syndrome refers to a culture-bound syndrome of Southeast Asia, where patients present with anxiety and depressive and somatic symptoms, which they attribute to semen loss. Common presentation of these patients is the passage of semen-like substance in urine. Retrograde ejaculation may cause spermaturia, and patients with firmly held cultural myths related to sexuality may develop features of Dhat syndrome. Here, a patient with obsessive–compulsive disorder on treatment with fluoxetine developed retrograde ejaculation and subsequently features of Dhat syndrome.
  21,209 386 2
Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: Concepts and applications in nutrition research and practice
Rohin Garg, Nidhi Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Jain
July-December 2014, 1(2):124-130
Nutrigenomics refers to the application of genomic principles in nutritional research, enables us to formulate associations between specific nutrients and genetic factors, e.g. the way in which food or food ingredients influence gene expression. It aims to identify the genes that influence the risk of diet-related diseases and also helpful to solve the mechanisms that underlie these genetic predispositions. In contrast, nutrigenetics reveals the coordination of genetic makeup of individuals with their responses to various dietary nutrients. It clarifies different responses to same nutrient by different individuals. Interaction of genetic background and diet with regard to development of chronic conditions as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and cancer are discussed in present review. These two branches of nutrition resemble with two sides of a coin, facing towards opposite sides but simultaneously, they are intimately attached with each other. Collective efforts by the scientific community are needed to strictly follow guidelines put forth regarding experimental designs, analysis, and data storage for nutritional research. This strategy will be helpful to generate a sound database useful for clinicians and dietetic practitioners.
  15,338 1,272 -
The study of different presentations of breast lumps in radiographic imaging
Shalini Saraswat, Amit Kumar
January-June 2014, 1(1):45-51
Introduction: Breast USG is an established and accurate tool for the primary evaluation of breast lumps and pathology. It also compliments X-ray mammography in further evaluation and characterization of breast masses and thus avoids surgeries in benign breast diseases and pathology. Method: For USG examination of the breast lumps, a linear-array transducer of 5-7 MHz frequency is required with a good resolution machine. Results: We present a pictorial essay on the role of USG in evaluation and characterization of various breast lumps and pathology. Conclusion: Breast sonography considerably improves the visualization and evaluation of lumps in mammographically radiodense breasts and helpful in the characterization of it, either as solid or cystic lesion. It also improves the specificity of X-ray mammography when used as an adjunct to it. It is also helpful in guiding FNAC/biopsy from the breast masses.
  15,114 365 -
Clinical practice guidance for the use of clomiphene citrate in Male Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Michael A. S Guth
January-June 2015, 2(1):14-18
Introduction: Inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion in men by testosterone (T) is principally mediated by aromatization to estrogen (E), which inhibits hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Material and Methods: Longitudinal clinical investigation unit-based evaluation of the clinical and biochemical response to E-receptor blockade. Initial monotherapy with 50 mg of clomiphene citrate (CC) daily for a period of 9 months, with diurnal morning peak testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels evaluated at three-month intervals thereafter. The patient then resumed hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using T cream with adjuvant CC therapy. Main Outcome Measures were Baseline and stimulated T and LH levels; effect on sexual function. Result(S): CC therapy resulted in complete normalization of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, serum T level, and sexual function. Conclusion(S): Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may result from an acquired defect of enhanced hypothalamic sensitivity to E-mediated negative feedback. Whereas direct T replacement therapy can further suppress endogenous gonadotropin secretion, treating IHH men with gonadotropins can stimulate endogenous T secretion and enhance fertility potential. Reversal of gonadotropin deficiency with CC was found to have a similar biological effect.
  14,390 431 -
Tarantula cubensis venom (theranekron®) selectively destroys human cancer cells via activating caspase-3-mediated apoptosis
Armin Ghasemi-Dizgah, Babak Nami, Nour Amirmozafari
January-June 2017, 4(1):74-80
Background: Tarantula cubensis venom (Theranekron®) is used as a homeopathic medicine which has shown anti-tumor effects in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess effect of Tarantula cubensis venom on apoptotic cell death of human cancer cell lines. Methods: HEK293, MCF7 and HN5 cell lines were used. The cells were treated with different concentrations of alcoholic extract of Tarantula cubensis (Theranekron®) for different periods of time. Cell morphology was studied by light microscopic observation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and death rate was assessed applying trypan blue staining. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, cleaved caspase-3 protein western blotting and ELISA caspase-3 activity assays. Results: Tarantula cubensis venom ruined cell adhesion, reduced cell proliferation, increased cell death rates and caused DNA fragmentation in human cells. An increased caspase-3 cleavage and hyper-activation of caspase-3 was detected in the cells treated with the venom. Results also showed a significantly higher toxicity and apoptosis levels in cancer cell lines MCF7 and HN5 compared with non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Conclusion: We conclude that Tarantula cubensis venom is selectively toxic for human cancer cells via inducing caspase-3- mediated apoptosis.
  13,067 749 6
Selfitis, narcissism, and emotional intelligence: Eliciting the interrelation among medical students in Kolkata, West Bengal
Soumalya Ray, Tanmay Kanti Panja, Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay
July-December 2020, 7(2):81-85
Introduction: Selfitis, the obsessive behavior to take and share one's own photographs, is a popular activity among young adults. It is growing with the availability of cheap data and free social network services. Scientific literature considers it as an effort to emphasize self-importance in the context of inadequate social support. The aim was to assess the burden of selfitis among medical students and to identify factors associated with it. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 166 students of a medical college in Kolkata, from December 2019 to March 2020. Materials and Methods: The level of selfitis was assessed using the Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS). Narcissism was evaluated using Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and emotional intelligence (EI) was assessed using the mind tool EI questionnaire. Quantitative data were expressed as mean (±standard deviation) or median (±interquartile range) and qualitative data were expressed in frequency and percentage. Binary logistic regression was done with the level of selfitis as a dependent variable and narcissistic trait, EI, and other sociodemographic, individual characteristics as the independent variable. Results: Around one-third (35.5%) of the respondents had borderline selfitis according to SBS. None of the respondents had acute or chronic selfitis. Perceived presence of recreational activity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 15.71), availability of pocket money (AOR - 69.42), family support (AOR - 6.30), and narcissistic trait (AOR - 3.94) were positively associated with borderline selfitis. Conclusions: Around one-third had borderline selfitis. Narcissism and lack of perceived family support were found to be associated with it.
  10,708 306 2
Empathy level among the medical students of national defence university of malaysia consuming toronto empathy scale
Mainul Haque, Siti Nur Najihah Binti Lutfi, Nur Syamirah Aishah Binti Othman, Halyna Lugova, Shahidah Leong Binti Abdullah
January-June 2018, 5(1):24-30
Background: Multiple research articles were continuously emphasizing that constructive effects of empathy improve patient care. Medical professional bodies often talk that medical doctors need to be competent in clinical skills and empathetic. There was enormous demand from patients that doctors should be empathetic and motivate listeners. Therefore, medical educators became highly concern about the issue whether their students possess empathetic qualities. The Aim of the Study: To measure the empathy level among the medical students and to perform validation and reliability study of the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among medical students of the Defence University of Malaysia to measure empathy level. The TEQ was utilized to collect data. The data were collected in early second half of 2017. The universal sampling method was adopted, and data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Software. Results: The current study population holds an average level of empathy. Female medical students had statistically significantly (P = 0.001) higher scores than their male friends. There no statistically significant differences observed in the TEQ score between the year of study (P = 0.948) and type of admission (P = 0.065). Conclusion: The current study respondents possess an average level of empathy. Educational intervention can be incorporated to enhance empathy level which sequentially promotes patient care.
  9,032 868 7
Shame and the modern woman: How slut-shaming hurts you!
Veronica Monet
January-June 2015, 2(1):1-4
  9,187 427 -
Thyroid-stimulating hormone in hypothyroidism – How high is too high?
Ruth Priya Senthiappan, Smitha Bhat, Sudeep Krishna
January-June 2019, 6(1):11-16
Background: The prevalence of hypothyroidism in the developed world is about 4-5% and in India is 10.9%. The goal of treating hypothyroidism is to maintain thyrotropin (TSH) levels within the normal reference range. Studies have shown that even within the normal range of TSH, patients with low normal TSH (LNT) have better outcomes when compared to patients with high normal TSH (HNT). Aims and Objectives: Our study aimed to find whether patients treated at a dose of levothyroxine resulting in an LNT had improved clinical outcomes and biochemical parameters, when compared to those on a levothyroxine dose resulting in an HNT. Materials and Methods: 180 patients with hypothyroidism on treatment, who had a TSH of 0.27-4.2mIU/L and had been on treatment with a stable dose of at least 50 micrograms of levothyroxine for at least 6 months were administered the Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire. TSH was assayed. Blood pressure and BMI were measured. Serum lipids were measured by spectrophotometry. Results: We found that patients with LNT and HNT did not differ with respect to cognitive symptoms , feelings of coldness, lethargy and fatigue. However, patients with LNT had a better lipid profile (mean LDL 132.24 in HNT and 115.39 in LNT p= 0.08) and lower BMI (1.045kg/m 2 lower in LNT compared to HNT) compared to HNT. Conclusion: Treating patients with a dose of thyroxine titrated to achieve LNT might decrease the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile and BMI.
  9,123 431 1
Autologous stem cells therapy, The first baby of idiopathic premature ovarian failure
M Edessy, Hala N Hosni, Y Shady, Y Waf, S Bakr, M Kamel
January-June 2016, 3(1):19-23
Introduction: Stem cells (sc) are the foundation cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body. They are self sustaining and can replicate themselves for long periods of time. Stem cells can differentiate into different types of cells. Women below the age of forty and showing ovarian function loss are defined to have premature ovarian failure (POF). It is associated with sex steroid deficiency, amenorrhea, infertility, and elevated serum gonadotropins. Aim: To evaluate the therapeutic potential of autologous Mesenchymal sc (MSC) transplantation in women suffering from POF. Out of 112 high risk patients for POF(cases with amenorrhoea befor the age of forty), diagnosis was confirmed in10 cases. The ten POF patients were scheduled for MSC transplantation at Al- Azhar University Hospitals. MSC preparation from the bone marrow of the iliac crest was laparoscopically injected into the ovaries. Endometrial fractional biopsy was histopathologicaly (HP) and Immunohistochemically (IH) stained and evaluated according to Edessy stem cells score (ESS). Ovarian reserve was evaluated according to Edessy ovarian reserve score (EORS). Results: Showed that after transplantation two cases (20%) (ESS = 5 and 6) resumed menstruation after 3 months, one of them (10%) (Case no 5) (ESS = 6) got pregnancy after 11 months and delivered a healthy full term baby (Zeinab).Ten months after transplantation EORS of patient who developed pregnancy (case no 6) was found to be 7 after being 0 before therapy. EORS of the other menstruating case (case no 10) was 5 after being 0. The 2 menstruating cases showed focal secretory changes after being atrophic endometrium in case 5 and distorted proliferative endometrium in case 10. Conclusion: Stem cell transplantation is a good procedure and regarded as a real and hope to get healthy pregnancy and baby for cases of POF. It showed good clinical, HP and IH outcome.
  8,434 936 43
Prevalence of sickle cell disease among children attending plateau specialist hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Nanbur Stephen, Nanyak Nden, Nanle Joseph Gusen, Patience Ringkat Kumzhi, Bonji Gaknung, Dauda Abimiku Auta, Lydia B Bulndi, Champion Mbursa, Vasantha P Kumari, Nannim Nanvyat
January-June 2018, 5(1):20-23
Background: An estimate of 250,000 children are born annually with sickle cell disease (SCD) worldwide and 75%–85% of the affected children are born in Africa; where mortality rates for those under age 5 years range from 50% to 80%. Objective: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of SCD among children in Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH), Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Secondary data on age, gender, and region from the case notes of infants, children and/or adolescents; who received medical care in PSSH from 2012 to 2014 were used. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and Chi-square statistics. Results: The findings revealed that the prevalence of SCD in PSSH, Jos from 2012 to 2014 was 26.9/1000 population of pediatric patients. There was a gradual increase in the prevalence rate from 25.8/1000 in 2012 to 26.8/1000 in 2013 and 28.1/1000 in 2014. However, the case fatality rate of SCD gradually decreased from 15.4% in 2012 to 11.1% in 2013 and 10.3% in 2014. Chi-square test shows that the prevalence of the disease in relation to sex, age, and residence was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Even though the case fatality rate of the disease decreased, its prevalence increased during the study. Conclusion: Therefore, preventive measure for SCD such as premarital genetic screening and counseling should be emphasized, especially in the southern and central geopolitical zones of Plateau state, where the prevalence was found to be higher.
  8,626 693 3
Effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on lumbar lordosis
Francis Osita Okpala
January-June 2018, 5(1):14-19
Background: Lumbar lordosis (LL), the anterior convexity of the lumbar spine in the mid-sagittal plane, gives the spine some resilience and helps in protecting it from compressive forces because some of the force is taken by the anterior longitudinal ligaments. In aging and lumbar spondylosis, the intervertebral discs undergo the same degenerative changes though at different rates, and in both, while some authors reported a straightening of LL, others reported no significant change. This morphologic information would hopefully influence therapeutic decision-making, particularly in lumbar spondylosis, which though usually asymptomatic, is a common cause of low back pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on LL. Subjects and Methods: Lumbosacral joint angle (LSJA), an angular measure of LL, was retrospectively measured in 252 normal and 329 spondylotic adolescent and adult supine lateral lumbosacral spine archival radiographs, and data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 (New York, USA). Results: Normal LSJA range was 5°–39°; the mean was 18.7° and showed insignificant variation with gender and aging. Spondylotic range was 5°–40° and the mean (20.8°) differed from the normal mean by about 2°, which probably have inconsequential effect on the lumbar curvature, suggesting that the normal and spondylotic mean values are essentially equal. The spondylotic mean also showed insignificant variation with aging and inconsequential 1° gender difference in favor of females. Conclusion: LL is substantially maintained in aging and lumbar spondylosis.
  8,645 610 -
A comparative analysis of the baska mask versus I-gel for general anesthesia in surgical patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Usha Kumari Chaudhary, Som Raj Mahajan, Monika Mahajan, Charu Sharma, Mukesh Sharma
July-December 2018, 5(2):69-73
Background and Aims: Baska mask is a newly introduced membranous cuffed supraglottic device whereas I-gel is made up of thermoplastic elastomer, both suitably designed from the anatomical perspective of the airway. Settings and Design: We conducted randomized controlled comparative trial of the Baska mask versus I-gel in a patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 adult patients in the age group of 20–70 years undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups as follows: (1) Baska mask group and (2) I-gel group. The primary outcome was to compare oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) of Baska mask and I-gel groups. The secondary outcome was the ease of insertion and removal, number of attempts, insertion time, leak fraction, and laryngopharyngeal morbidity. Statistical Analysis Used: Demographic details were compared using the Chi-square and t-tests. Student's t-test for independent variables was used to compare means of data obtained. Results: Mean OLP was significantly higher in Baska mask group than I-gel group at insertion (29.54 ± 1.41 cm H2O vs. 23.16 ± 3.07 cm H2O, P = 0.02) and 30 min after insertion (33.54 ± 1.16 cm H2O vs. 25.97 ± 2.25 cm H2O, P = 0.001). Insertion time was 12.33 ± 2.61 s with Baska mask and 11.31 ± 1.84 s with I-gel (P = 0.02). Insertion was very easy in 58% of patients in Baska mask and 76% of patients in I-gel (P = 0.03). The leak fraction of Baska mask was significantly less than I-gel (3.56 ± 3.6 vs. 7.16 ± 2.45, P = 0.01). Laryngopharyngeal morbidity was comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: Baska mask is more effective in providing greater OLP compared to I-gel without any increase in laryngopharyngeal morbidity.
  7,441 884 1
Heme iron polypeptide (proferrin®-ES) versus iron saccharate complex (ferrosac) for treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy
Ibrahim A Abdelazim, Mohannad Abu-Faza, Assem A. M Elbiaa, Hossam S Othman, Dareen A Alsharif, Walid Farok Elsawah
January-June 2017, 4(1):56-61
Objectives: Anemia is one of the world's leading causes of considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Heme iron polypeptide (Proferrin®-ES) versus iron saccharate complex (Ferrosac) in treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Methods: Two hundred and sixty (260) pregnant women with hemoglobin level below 10 gm/dl due to iron deficiency anemia were included in this study and randomized to receive either; intravenous Iron Saccharate (IV group) or oral Proferrin®-ES (PO group) for correction of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Treatment efficacy checked by comparing pre-treatment values of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and reticulocytes count by the 3-months` post-treatment values. Results: The 3-months` post-treatment hemoglobin level increased compared to the pre-treatment level without any significant difference between the two studied groups (from 8.5 ± 3.5 to 11.3 ± 1.3 gm/dl in PO group and from 8.7 ± 2.5 to 11.7 ± 0.9 gm/dl in IV group). In addition; the 3-months` post-treatment ferritin level, increased compared to the pre-treatment level without any significant difference between the two studied groups (from 19.4 ± 4.9 to 118.8 ± 7.1 ug/l in PO group and from 15.3 ± 5.6 to 122.3 ± 6.4 ug/l in IV group). 1.6% (2/124) of the studied women developed gastrointestinal intolerance and upset with oral Proferrin®-ES (insignificant difference and excluded from the study) and no other side effects recorded with oral Proferrin®-ES. Conclusion: HIP (Proferrin®-ES) is an effective, safe, well tolerable oral iron preparation as well as intravenous iron saccharate complex for treatment of iron deficiency during pregnancy; it increases the hemoglobin and replaces the depleted iron store.
  7,536 574 6
Effectiveness of Benson's relaxation therapy on reduction of stress among primigravid mothers
Simi Paramban, Sireesha Bala, J Krishna Sowmya, M V. Raghavendra Rao, Praveen Kottath Veetil
July-December 2016, 3(2):133-140
Objectives: The study attempt to assess the effectiveness of Benson's relaxation therapy on reduction of stress among primigravid mothers attending the outpatient department in a selected hospital at Kannur, with the objectives of evaluating the stress among the primigravid mothers before and after the Benson's relaxation therapy and to associate the level of stress with selected demographic variables. Methods: A total of 30 primigravid mothers after third month of gestation were selected for the study. The information regarding background data were collected from the primigravid mothers by self-administered rating scale and the level of hemoglobin status was noted from the health records. Selected primigravid mothers were given pretest questionnaire and Benson's relaxation therapy was administered to all group members for 20 minutes and instructed to continue this for a period of 15 days. Post-test using rating scale was conducted 15 days after the administration of Benson's relaxation therapy. Result: The result of the study shows that the post-test mean stress score was less than the pre-test mean stress score. The obtained mean difference between the pre-test and post-test regarding stress score was statistically significant. Hence research hypothesis “there will be a significant difference in the stress scores before and after Benson's relaxation therapy among the primigravid mothers” has been retained. Conclusions: It was inferred that primigravid mothers who practiced Benson's relaxation therapy had significant decrease in post-test stress score. Also there was significant association with the level of stress and some demographic variables.
  7,420 445 1
Simulation in anaesthesia
Sanjeev Kumar Jain, Rohit Kumar Varshney
July-December 2018, 5(2):53-54
  3,254 4,404 -
Female ejaculation - myth or fact?
Veronica Monet
January-June 2016, 3(1):4-5
  7,141 399 -
Periodontitis and diabetes: A bidirectional, cyclical relationship - A brief review
Rakesh Agarwal, Rashmi Baid
July-December 2017, 4(2):46-49
Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis have been said to have a bidirectional cyclical relationship, with diabetes leading to oral disease, and periodontitis, in turn, exacerbating hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is recognized as the sixth major complication of diabetes, having increased prevalence and severity in patients with diabetes. Early diagnosis of diabetes in patients with periodontitis can lead to the prevention of major morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Therapy for diabetes may also lead to the improvement of periodontitis. In this review, we are presenting the current knowledge of the interplay and interaction between these two entities and the available data regarding treatment of the two entities together.
  6,336 795 3
Structure based virtual screening, docking and molecular dynamic simulation studies to identify potent mdm2-p53 inhibitors: Future implications for cancer therapy
B Vijay Raj, MV Raghavendra Rao, Yogesh Acharya
January-June 2017, 4(1):11-21
Objective: To identify the p53 binding pocket as well as active residues in mdm2 protein, and search for similar (or) better compounds to inhibit mdm2-p53 interactions in comparison to FDA approved drug (Nutlin) by ligand and structure based virtual screening methods, docking, and molecular dynamic simulation studies. Methods: A structure and ligand based virtual screening for mdm2 protein; targeting the key residues involved in their active binding of p53 peptide was conducted after obtaining structurally suitable compounds similar to Nutlin from ZINC database. These compounds are virtually screened onto the mdm2 protein targeting its active binding site where p53 binds. The best compound with highest binding affinity was taken up for further analysis using molecular dynamic simulations for further validating the docking studies and to reveal interactions during the conformational changes Results: We discovered several compounds that are potentially able to block the interaction between active residues of mdm2 and p53 complex, suggesting their capability to act as anti-cancer agents. As proven by our structure based virtual screening studies coupled with semi-flexible and flexible docking studies, compound ZINC59256947 was found to be the strongest inhibitors for mdm2 protein amongst all of those isolates from ZINC database. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, a simple, selective and reliable inhibition assay can be performed to search for novel inhibitors of p53-mdm2 interaction. Therefore this study provides a rationalization to the ability of a ZINC59256947, an isolate from ZINC database with strong binding affinity towards mdm2 protein, for future implications as anti-cancer agent.
  5,706 852 3
Romosozumab: A new anabolic arrow in quiver for management of osteoporosis
Alok Singh, Dhyuti Gupta
July-December 2020, 7(2):57-62
The multifactorial disease of the elderly, characterized by accelerated bone loss and a high risk of fracture (even with trivial trauma), osteoporosis, is known to primarily affect postmenopausal women. Moreover, the precipitating factors for the same mainly are the hormonal and nutritional deficiency. Clinically, the most common fracture to be encountered is the vertebral compression fracture. Apart from exogenously supplementing calcium and Vitamin D, a diverse group of drugs (bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, strontium ranelate, raloxifene, and calcitonin) are available to manage the case of osteoporosis. The latest drug to be approved and included in this quiver is a sclerostin-targeting monoclonal antibody, romosozumab. This new drug appears to be promising in managing the postmenopausal patients of osteoporosis. Although the array of adverse effects is not well recognized, a black box warning has been issued for this drug in reference to contraindicated use in patients with comorbid myocardial infarction. The intent of the authors for this review is to discuss the pharmacological profile of romosozumab, with particular emphasis on supportive clinical trials as well as the adverse drug reactions associated with its use.
  5,958 410 -
Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and knowledge related to breastfeeding among mothers attending immunization center and well-baby clinic
Shuvendu Roy, Ashish K Simalti, Bindu T Nair
July-December 2018, 5(2):79-83
Background: The World Health Organization defines exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as giving baby only breast milk for the first 6 months without adding any additional drink including water or food. We undertook this study with an objective to assess the prevalence of breastfeeding among mothers in North Indian setting. Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of EBF among mothers attending a well-baby clinic and to look for variable significantly impacting probability of breastfeeding and assessing the challenges faced and existing knowledge regarding breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based one-point survey to assess the prevalence of EBF. The questionnaire was based on the review of literature and included parameters considered significant by various studies. Mother's knowledge regarding breastfeeding was assessed by another questionnaire. Results: A total of 970 mothers were approached who visited immunization center and well-baby clinic during the study. After taking out those who were unwilling and did not meet the criteria, we had 634 mothers who participated in our study. They were divided into two groups based on whether they exclusive breastfed their babies for 6 months or not. Comparison of both these groups revealed breastfeeding counseling to be the most important variable. Statistical Analysis Used: It is a cross-sectional type of study with a questionnaire-based one-point survey. The minimum sample size required was calculated using Daniel's formula: n = z2pq/d. Consequent sampling was done. Chi-square test for independence was done to assess the association between both the groups for all the parameters recorded. Conclusions: All mothers were aware that breast milk is beneficial for their baby; however, the biggest problem was anxiety regarding the adequacy of their breast milk. There is also need for a widespread campaign related to harm done by prelacteals and substitutes of breast milk including cow milk.
  5,940 379 2
A study of snakebite envenomation cases admitted to egyptian national poisoning center
Ahmed Salah Gouda, Nagla A Elnabarawy, Sayed M Badawy
July-December 2017, 4(2):34-40
Introduction: Snakebite is an Egyptian health problem since ancient Egypt. Meanwhile, there is still no controlled geographical and medical studies on locally prevalent snake family intoxication. Aim and Methods: The present study aimed to investigate local snakebites presentations, management, prognosis, and the effect of the polyvalent antivenom, locally produced by the Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA) through the year 2015. Results: A total of 87 snakebites caused by venomous and nonvenomous species were recorded. Most cases were middle-aged males. Most cases presented in summer and in the evening time. Two major groups of venomous Egyptian snakes were identified, Viperidae and Elapidae species, based on history, characteristic symptoms, and laboratory findings. Most snakebites (56 cases) were reported to be nonvenomous bites (64.4%). Twenty-one cases (24.1%) of snakebites were reported to be venomous bites by Elapidae snakes and 10 cases (11.5%) were reported to be venomous bites by Viperidae snakes. Antivenom was administered before referral to 37 (42.5%) of cases, and 19 only of them were victims of venomous snakes. Thirty-six (41.3%) patients received antivenom during admission including all cases of the venomous bites and 8.9% of nonvenomous bites' cases. Conclusion: Patients who had moderate or severe symptoms were effectively treated with VACSERA's polyvalent antivenom, with doses related to the severity grading and snake species identification. Additional antivenom doses were repeated on the bases of the clinical condition. Many snakebite victims referred from primary health centers received inadequate or nonnecessary doses of antivenom. No cases of anaphylaxis were recorded. There were no mortalities with current National Center for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology's protocol of treatment.
  5,410 426 5
A study of knowledge and attitude of health care providers working at tertiary care hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan (having HIV/AIDS treatment facility) towards HIV/AIDS
Tahira Hafeez, Syed Hunain Riaz, Irtza Ali, Naila Irum
January-June 2017, 4(1):124-131
A very few health care providers look after HIV/AIDS people because of their poor knowledge and either their lack of positive attitude or usually both. The rationale of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers (tertiary care hospitals in Lahore, having HIV/AIDS Treatment Facility) towards patients with HIV/AIDS. In this cross sectional study, a random sample of 180 healthcare providers was assessed for their knowledge and attitudes. In the questionnaire of knowledge, items were measured in the form of dichotomous scale. Whereas in the five domains of attitudes, items were measured as a five-point likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Results were discussed in the outlook of two variables which showed that the presence of negative attitude and lack of awareness increase the level of stigma and discrimination. HIV in our country needs positive attitude of rendering care and effective control measures by creating awareness in the community. The study reinforced the need for an ongoing education focused on experiential learning, and professional socialization.
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