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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51-54

Rhombencephalitis secondary to toxoplasma gondii infection: Case report and literature review

1 Department of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
2 Department of Neurology, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jamir Pitton Rissardo
Rua Roraima, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ami.ami_78_19

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Immunocompetent (IC) individuals with primary toxoplasmosis are usually asymptomatic. However, in some IC, toxoplasmosis can present with brainstem encephalitis. We report an adult female patient with headache associated with worsening coordination. Physical examination showed bilateral, symmetrical, and nontender cervical lymphadenopathy. Toxoplasmosis immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were high, and the IgG antibody avidity pattern was low. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis was requested that revealed a positive polymerase chain reaction results for toxoplasmosis. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a T1-hypointense left pontine lesion. Pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were started. After 1 month, the patient had full recovery. Four months after, the individual was admitted due to progressive abnormal eye movements and tremor. Her neurological examinations showed ocular myoclonus and Holmes tremor. A second brain MRI showed hypertrophy of the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus. In the follow-up, her symptoms decreased mildly. The tremor was managed with clonazepam and levodopa. Furthermore, immune suppression investigation was negative.

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