Genotyping of High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Among Cervical Precancer and Cancer Patients
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus which has tropism for epithelial cells, is the major etiological factor for development of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions. Nearly 100 different types of HPV have been characterized and there are a large number of other types. HPV infection is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease in both men and women worldwide. It is associated with a variety of clinical conditions that range from innocuous lesions to cancer. Genital HPV types are divided into high and low-risk types, according to the oncogenic potential. Molecular and epidemiologic studies have solidified the association between high risk HPV types (especially HPV-16 and HPV-18) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HPV infection is often transient and self-limiting but infection may persists and progress to high grade lesions and cancer. In addition to persistent high-risk HPV infection, other viral factors such as high viral loads, HPV variants, infections with multiple high-risk HPV types and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to detect HPV DNA and identify high risk HPV genotype among women having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma and to evaluate potential
effi cacy of prophylactic HPV vaccine. Methods: Cervical swab from histopathologically diagnosed CIN (n=51) and carcinoma (n=39) patients were taken and high risk HPV DNA was detected by HC II assay. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to identify high risk HPV genotype. Result: HPV DNA was detected in 41 (45.56%) patients by HC II assay. HPV type 16 was detected in 27 (81.82%) followed by type 18 in 3 (9.09%) and type 45 in 2 (6.06%) cases of cervical carcinoma. Among precancerous cases, only type 16 was detected. Conclusion: Knowledge based on HPV prevalence and genotype could be used to predict the effi cacy of cost eff ective prophylactic vaccine, introduction of newer generation vaccine and management of cervical carcinoma.