Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Presenting as Erythroderma
Introduction: Exfoliative Erythroderma syndrome is a serious, at times life-threatening reaction pattern of the skin characterized by generalized and uniform redness and scaling involving the entire skin and often associated with systemic toxicity, lymphadenopathy and fever. Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasisis observed in anergic patients with a low immune response. Case report: We are presenting a case of a 17-year-old patient diagnosed with Diffuse Cutaneous and Visceral recidivial Leishmaniasis, which clinically presented Erythroderma and skin exfoliation. The most common causes of Erythroderma are Psoriasis, Allergic Dermatitis, Drug Reactions, Lymphoma and Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris. Conversely, Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of non-ulcerative nodules which resemble Lepromatous Leprosy, scattered in in every part of the body.To the best of our knowledge, the present clinical manifestation of Leishmaniasis has not yet been reported in the literature. Conclusion: In the correct clinical and epidemiological scenario, diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis should be suspected in patients presenting Exfoliative Erythroderma and diffuse nodular lesions.