Detection of HPV and its Association with Different Known Risk Factors for Neoplastic Cervical Lesions
Objective: Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common diseases in our setup studies show that it is preceded by precursor lesions. It has been suggested that persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor in the development of this invasive cervical neoplasia. The rationale of this study was, whether detection may contribute to the identification as a major risk factor in cervical neoplastic lesions. Study Design: Experimental study. Methods: 102 cases were selected after screening 1000 specimens through Papanicolaou stains of cervical cytology and histopathology for detection of HPV and its subtype PCR. Data for risk factors were collected by a questionnaire and association of HPV was seen with Positive PCR results. Patient demographics including their age, sexual partners, marital status, socioeconomic condition, contraceptive and screening history were evaluated to determine whether subsidiary risk factors are associated with HPV and the development of cervical lesions among Pakistani women. Major Outcome: 85% cases of cervical carcinoma were associated with high risk HPV infection. Results: 46/102 (45%) cases were low grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions(L-SILs),twenty two (21.5%) cases were high grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (H-SILs), 14(13.7%) cases were squamous cell carcinomas(SCC), 6 (5.8%) cases showed features of adenocarcinoma, 10(9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASCUS) and 4(3.9%) cases were of atypical glandular cells of undetermined
significance(AGUS). Out of 102 cases, 88/102(86.27%) were positive for HPV and among them 32/88 (36%) cases were of HPV-16 and 56/88(64%) cases of HPV-18. There was strong association of HPV positivity with young age, early marriages, poor socioeconomic condition, abortions, multiparity and smoking but there was no association with multiple marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of HPV-18 was greater than HPV-16 in cervical neoplastic lesions and was strongly associated with certain known risk factors for cervical carcinoma.