Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in Healthy Blood Donors in Specific Class of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-Economic Status Scale
Background: Blood transfusion has profound role to play in specific illness, but still due to unsafe and careless practices the peril of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and malaria prevails.
Objective: To study the seroprevalence of TTIs in healthy blood donors in specific Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic scale at a Blood Bank of a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India, to enhance the awareness about transfusion related risks and to implement better strategic measures to prevent TTI, in high risk groups.
Material and Method: Total 10,569 blood units were collected from Jan-2014 to Septmeber-2015. All donors were categorised according to the Kuppuswamy’s Socioeconomic Status Scale (KSESS) followed by screening of all sera samples for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV, HIV types 1 and 2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and for malaria antigen and Treponema pallidum by using immunochromatographic tests and Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) respectively. All the samples found reactive for HIV, HBsAg, and HCV were again confirmed by second ELISA.
Results: The overall seroprevalence was HCV 2.06 % (218/10569) > HBV 1.71% (181/10569) > HIV 0.03% (3/10569). No donor was found positive for Malaria and VDRL. The prevalence of transfusion transmissible diseases in specific socio economic class was as follows-:Upper lower class (IV) 248/2261 (10.96%) > Lower class (V) 34/483 (7.03%) > Lower Middle class (III) 97/5789 (1.67%) > Upper middle class (II) 22/1552 (1.42%) > Upper class (I) 1/484 (0.20%) and seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible diseases in each socio economic class, out of total donations was as follows-: Upper lower class (IV) 248/10569 (2.35%)> Lower middle class (III) 97/10569 (0.92%) >Lower class (V) 34/10569 (0.32%)> upper middle class (II) 22/10569 (0.21) >Upper class (I) 1/10569 (0.009%).
Conclusion: Maximum positive TTIs had association with low socio-economic status people with increased medical and behavioral risk factors. Hence, we conclude that awareness among the high risk population group, strict and skillfulness selection of donors and use of effective laboratory screening tests is the prerequisite for the safe donation!!