Vitamin D and Diabetes: A New Horizon
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease which is caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, and the prevalence rate of Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing among Indians as well as through worldwide. Various risk factors play a role in the aetiopathogenesis and in the glycemic control among the type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, identification of environmental and easily modified risk factors is urgently needed to prevent development of T2DM. One of various such risk factors, vitamin D3 level & therefore serum calcium levels are reported to alter the glycemic control. The major and most well-known function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promote bone mineralization. However, recent evidence suggests that vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may also be important for a variety of non-skeletal diseases including T2DM. Based on basic and animal studies, vitamin D and calcium have also been suspected as modifiers of diabetes risk. The systemic review was carried out to evaluate the evidences as well as limitation in respect of vitamin D3 and serum calcium level regarding the glycemic control in T2DM. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between glycemic control in T2DM and altered vitamin D3 & serum calcium concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. So the status of above two parameters is considered as an important factor in T2DM patients. Its role in present scenario should be understood both as an etiological concept & also as a therapeutic option.