Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics: Concepts and Applications in Nutrition Research and Practice
Nutrigenomics refers to the application of genomic principles in nutritional research, enables us to formulate associations between specific nutrients and genetic factors, e.g. the way in which food or food ingredients influence gene expression. It aims to identify the genes that influence the risk of diet-related diseases and also helpful to solve the mechanisms that underlie these genetic predispositions. In contrast, nutrigenetics reveals the coordination of genetic makeup of individuals with their responses to various dietary nutrients. It clarifies different responses to same nutrient by different individuals. Interaction of genetic background and diet with regard to development of chronic conditions as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and cancer are discussed in present review. These two branches of nutrition resemble with two sides of a coin, facing towards opposite sides but simultaneously, they are intimately attached with each other. Collective efforts by the scientific community are needed to strictly follow guidelines put forth regarding experimental designs, analysis, and data storage for nutritional research. This strategy will be helpful to generate a sound database useful for clinicians and dietetic practitioners.